Installing Ubuntu 9.10 on the BeagleBoard

Since there don’t appear to be any clear step-by-step instructions for doing this, I figured I would make a nice instructional post for people that don’t spend their whole day hacking embedded hardware.  This assumes you have basic linux knowledge and a BeagleBoard you don’t mind completely gutting out to put on Ubuntu.

Things you need:

  • BeagleBoard (Mine is a Rev B7)
  • Uboot-mkimage (Ubuntu has this as a package)
  • An SD card reader on a machine with ext2/3 support

Step 1: Formatting your card

Because the BeagleBoard firmware (u-boot) can only easily read FAT32, and Ubuntu is much happier with EXT2/3, the first step is to make two partitions on your SD card.  I was able to do this using the Disk Utility on my Mac, after installing fuse-ext2, but any partition manager should be able to do this.  You want the following setup:

  • Partition 1: 50MB – FAT32
  • Partition 2: The rest – EXT2/3

The exact setup isn’t that important, the main thing is that the FAT partition is first and large enough to hold the boot kernel.

Step 2: Upgrading the firmware

Since I have no idea what crazy firmware my BeagleBoard came with, the next thing to do was upgrade my board to some known, reasonable version.  You will use the FAT partition on your newly formatted SD card for this purpose:

Go to the BeagleBoard downloads page and get the latest versions of the following files:

  • x-load.bin.ift
  • MLO
  • u-boot-flash.bin (sometimes named u-boot-f)
  • uImage.bin

(When you download these, these files will have version information stuck on them, like “x-load_revc_v3.bin.ift”.  You should rename them to look exactly like the file names above.  This is so that in the next step, the commands we use will have the correct filenames.)

Copy the files to the SD card:

All of the above files should be copied to the root of the FAT partition of your SD card.  There shouldn’t be anything in that partition other than these 4 files, named exactly as above.

Upgrade the firmware:

Connect to the BeagleBoard over the serial interface, so you can use the console.  The Beagleboard serial interface is 115200 baud, 8N1.  I like to connect using GNU Screen, so I do the following:

screen -U /dev/ttyUSB0 115200

Now, plug the SD card into the BeagleBoard, and let it start up the boot process.  When you see it get to the prompt about autoboot, press a key to interrupt it:

Texas Instruments X-Loader 1.41
Starting OS Bootloader...

U-Boot 1.3.3 (Jul  8 2008 - 16:29:02)

OMAP3530-GP rev 2, CPU-OPP2 L3-165MHz
OMAP3 Beagle Board + LPDDR/NAND
DRAM:  128 MB
NAND:  256 MiB
*** Warning - bad CRC or NAND, using default environment

In:    serial
Out:   serial
Err:   serial
Audio Tone on Speakers  ... complete
Hit any key to stop autoboot:  0
OMAP3 beagleboard.org #

Now, at this point, you have all the things you need to follow the BeagleBoard NAND flashing instructions.  There are several versions, but I found the Google code version to be the best for x-loader and u-boot, and the e-linux.org wiki version better for the kernel image (uImage). You will do 3 write sequences, one for x-loader, one for u-boot, and one for uImage.

Step 3: Putting Ubuntu on the SD card

The details of making a custom Ubuntu image can be found on the e-linux.org wiki.  However, I just used the demo images linked on the wiki, as I didn’t really need a custom image with a ton of stuff.  So first, I downloaded an unzipped the tarball of the Karmic (9.10) demo image.  It uses 7Z compression, so you might need to install 7zip if you don’t have it.  Included in the tarball are two files, a vmlinuz-* file that will be the kernel image, and a large armel-rootfs-*.tar that will be the root file system.

The installation details are hidden on the wiki, but I will reiterate them for clarity:

  • Install the ubuntu package uboot-mkimage.
    sudo apt-get install uboot-mkimage
  • Use the vmlinuz-* file to make a uImage file.
    mkimage -A arm -O linux -T kernel -C none -a 0x80008000 -e 0x80008000 -n "Linux" -d ./vmlinuz-* ./uImage
  • Create a boot script file called ubuntu.cmd with the following lines (note: if you use ext2, change the reference in the second line of this script from ext3 to ext2):
    setenv bootcmd 'mmcinit; fatload mmc 0:1 0x80300000 uImage; bootm 0x80300000'
    setenv bootargs 'console=ttyS2,115200n8 console=tty0 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootwait rootfstype=ext3 ro vram=12M omapfb.mode=dvi:1280x720MR-16@60'
    boot
  • Compile the ubuntu.cmd script into an ubuntu.scr file.
    mkimage -A arm -O linux -T script -C none -a 0 -e 0 -n "Ubuntu 9.10" -d ./ubuntu.cmd ./ubuntu.scr
  • You should  now have two files, uImage and ubuntu.scr. Clear off everything else in the FAT partition of your SD card and copy both of these files there, and rename ubuntu.scr to boot.scr. Your FAT partition should just contain two files: uImage and boot.scr.
  • Finally, copy the root filesystem to your EXT partition.  You can do this directly from the tar archive:
    sudo tar xfp armel-rootfs-[fill this in].tgz -C [SD card EXT mount]

Lastly, there are a couple of quick hacks that need to be done for Karmic (9.10) to work. The e-linux guide is pretty clear about this part, so I’ll just post the relevant link to their wiki section.  Basically, you just need to edit a couple of config files on your EXT partition so that the kernel mounts it correctly and doesn’t freak out. Be careful with the paths though, if you forget the ./, you could easily end up editing your own machine’s config files instead!

Now finally, at this point, you can plug the SD card into the BeagleBoard, and you should get to a login prompt.  Awesome!

This entry was posted in Hardware Hacking, Linux.

13 Comments

  1. Posted 2010-03-12 at 14:27 | Permalink

    Hi,

    Thanks for the article.

    I had been trying to install Linux on BeagleBoard. But all articles available on net were confusing, since I was a beginner. But now, with the help of your article, I successfully installed Ubuntu on BB. I installed Graphical applications too.

    Thanks once again.


    VKSALIAN

  2. Posted 2010-03-17 at 23:22 | Permalink

    Fantastic! I’m glad I could help. Let me know if you discover any other neat tricks with the beagleboard.

  3. Mikey
    Posted 2010-03-18 at 07:24 | Permalink

    Hi pkv,
    Thanks for the helpful article!
    I had gotten Ubuntu installed but couldnt see a desktop and only had a terminal login session. Thought i had done something wrong! But i just need to do install Gui apps right? do you know any good guides for that?
    Thanks again!

  4. Posted 2010-03-18 at 23:37 | Permalink

    @Mikey

    That’s right. You need to install a window manager and the X-Window-System to use windows, and a login manager if you want a graphical login.

    I decided to install XFCE and GDM for my box, because I believe that is the default for Xubuntu, and it’s a little lighter than full GNOME. So, if I recall correctly, I just did:

    sudo apt-get install xfce4 gdm

    You can find a bit more information about minimal installation of Ubuntu in this blog post.

  5. Curt
    Posted 2010-04-22 at 21:11 | Permalink

    It took me several tries but I got to the login prompt. How do I figure out what the usernames and passwords are?

  6. Posted 2010-04-22 at 22:03 | Permalink

    It’s buried in that wiki link, but the answer is that the stock images are set up with the following user:

    user: ubuntu
    pass: temppwd

    (I’d recommend changing it after you first log in…)

  7. gayatri
    Posted 2010-06-04 at 00:45 | Permalink

    Hi all, I Gayatri i am also porting ubuntu on beagleboard but i am little bit confusing which site should to port ubuntu plz tell me clearly

  8. Calvin
    Posted 2010-07-21 at 02:09 | Permalink

    @pkv

    I cant get through the login with

    Ubuntu 10.04 LTS beagleboard ttyS2

    beagleboard login: ubuntu

    Login incorrect
    beagleboard login:

    Any ideas?

  9. Posted 2010-08-08 at 23:36 | Permalink

    @Calvin

    Hmm, I honestly am not sure what to do here. If you downloaded the image from elinux.org, it’s supposed to be compiled with the –login ubuntu –password temppwd options. If you got the image from somewhere else, it could, of course, have different login information. If you figure out what it is, I would love to hear about it.

    (Sorry for taking so long.. your comment showed up while I was travelling)

  10. Posted 2010-08-08 at 23:37 | Permalink

    @gayatri

    Sorry, but this guide is just for installing an already ported ubuntu to beagleboard.

    From wikipedia, porting means “the process of adapting software so that an executable program can be created for a computing environment that is different from the one for which it was originally designed.” The folks that created arm-ubuntu have already done that for us. This guide is just for installing that port.

    And to answer your question, the sites I am using primarily are:

    beagleboard on Google Code
    eLinux.org

  11. Posted 2010-11-11 at 12:31 | Permalink

    Hi
    I am using BeagleBoard C4 Rev,which dont have NAND image or the images got erased.
    I follow two methods so far
    1)One from the url http://code.google.com/p/beagleboard/wiki/BeagleBoardDiagnostics
    (i tried both the images C3,C4 and combination)
    2)Second from http://www.snowbotic.com/archives/33.
    But no luck so far.
    The process of flashing the x-loader and u-boot to nand takes how much time? or it is not happening at all.I dont see any output on serial terminal minicom(i am using ubuntu linux) or to LCD screen.

    Can somebody suggest me some alternate method to do this(besides mmc/sd card) and which may work for me.

    I have other Beagleboard(Rev B6) which works fine but has x-loader and u-boot in NAND intact.

    Thanks in advance
    Manish

  12. Posted 2013-07-26 at 18:49 | Permalink

    You really make it appear so easy with your presentation but
    I in finding this matter to be actually something that I think I would
    never understand. It seems too complex and extremely huge for me.
    I’m having a look forward for your subsequent put up, I’ll try to get the grasp of it!

  13. DIPTENDU
    Posted 2014-03-20 at 02:01 | Permalink

    Hi,
    Awesome tutorial.. Easy to understand it. Can you please guide me on how to install VLC on Ubuntu 9.10 on the BeagleBoard

    Thanks in advance

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